Spintronics is the portmanteau meaning of “spin transport electronics”. It refers to the study of the role of intrinsic spin of electron and associated magnetic moment in solid state physics and the devices that exploits the spin properties in addition to the fundamental electronic charge. For example, spin relaxation and spintransport in metals and semiconductors are under continuous research and study, not only being basic solid state issue but also for the already demonstrated potential that has in electronic technology.
Spintronics emerged from discoveries in 1980s concerning spin-dependent electron transport phenomena in the solid-state devices. Milestones in the development of spintronics are given below.
- 1985-observation of spin-polarized electron injection from a ferromagnetic metal to a normal metal by Johnson and Silsbee
- 1988 – Giant Magneto resistive Effect (GME) discovered by Albert Fert in France and Peter Gruenberg
- 1989 – IBM scientists made a string of key discoveries about the “giant magneto resistive” effect in thin-film structures
- 1997 – first GMR (Giant magneto resistive) Hard disk head introduced by IBM
- 2001 – University of Arkansas physicists have successfully injected a stream of electrons with identical spins into a semiconductor.
- 2002 – Plastic Shows Promise For Spintronics, Magnetic Computer Memory
- 2003 – Min Ouyang and David Awschalom of the University of California at Santa Barbara have transferred electron spins across molecular bridges between quantum dots for the first time.
- 2004-Jing Shi and colleagues at the University of Utah in the US have made the first organic spin valve.
- 2005-July – New Spintronic Speed Record – 2GHz MRAM devised and Discovery of ‘Doping’ Mechanism in Semiconductor Nanocrystals.
- 2006-January – Researchers at the University of Michigan created a computer chip based on the esoteric science of quantum mechanics.
- 2007- First breakthrough in applying spin-based electronics to silicon and Nobel prize for Giant Magneto resistance discovery
- 2009-Scientists proved the existence of a ‘spin battery’ June – Scientists Discover Magnetic Super atoms
- 2010- Thermo-Spintronics chips that run on heat are possible
- 2010 October – Researchers developed a way to reliably read the spin of a single electron
- 2011-January – Researchers manage to generate spin current in Graphene March – Researchers develop room-temperature spintronics transistors
- 2012-A new technology aims to improving the reliability of spintronics logic IC s
The spintronic properties of gallium manganese arsenide finally explained-New theory generalizes spin transfer torques, total angular momentum current, and mechanical torques
Spin of the electron is an angular momentum intrinsic to the electron and which is different from the angular momentum due to its orbital motion. The electron’s spin is (1/2)ђ, which implies that the electron acts as a fermion by the spin-statistics theorem. Like orbital angular momentum, the electron spin has an associated magnetic moment and the magnitude of that moment is given by,